When exposed to water that contains fluoride, a fluoride ion (F-) can replace a hydroxyl ion (OH-) in the bone mineral.
The resulting fluor-apatite is more stable than the original form, thus the fluoride content of a bone will increase over time if it is exposed to a solution containing fluoride ions.
Many different techniques can be used to measure bone fluoride content, but measurement by ion selective electrode is the easiest and simplest method available today.
A January 20, 2005 article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta (Volume 425, pages 189-194, by Raymond N.
Rogers, Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California) makes it perfectly clear: the carbon 14 dating sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was not valid.
Virtually all the nitrogen in the atmosphere is N-14 (only 0.36% is N-15).
Occasionally, a fast-moving electron from the sun strikes a N-14 nucleus, combines with a proton to create a neutron, and creates an atom of Carbon-14.
Willard Libby (1908–1980), a professor of chemistry at the University of Chicago, began the research that led him to radiocarbon dating in 1945.
He was inspired by physicist Serge Korff (1906–1989) of New York University, who in 1939 discovered that neutrons were produced during the bombardment of the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
Dedicated at the University of Chicago on October 10, 2016.
In 1946, Willard Libby proposed an innovative method for dating organic materials by measuring their content of carbon-14, a newly discovered radioactive isotope of carbon.
Carbon-14 dating can be used on objects ranging from a few hundred years old to 50,000 years old.